Sports and Exercise Science

In the Sport and exercise Science section you can find links to articles covering areas related to sports and exercise science.

The Components of Sports and Exercise Fitness

The Components of Fitness – a look at the major components of fitness that contribute to health and sports performance.

What is endurance – the components and factors that contribute to endurance exercise performance.

Lactate Threshold – the science behind the lactate threshold and why it’s important for success in endurance sports.

VO2 MAX – a look at the the importance of VO2 max for health and sports performance.

Exercise Economy / Exercise Efficiency – the factors affecting exercise efficiency and it’s importance for sports performance.

Neuromuscular coordination – what is it and why is it important for all strength, power and endurance sports?

Sustainable Percent VO2 Max – the importance of being able to sustain a high percentage of VO2 Max during endurance events.

The Velocity at VO2 Max (vVO2 Max) – the significance of the VO2 max for endurance exercise performance.

Muscular endurance – a look at the importance of muscular endurance and how to train to improve it.

Fitness Testing – a list of different sports fitness tests.

Different types of strength – a look at the different types and ways to classify strength.

Training to Improve Endurance

Aerobic base training – what is it? And why is aerobic base training one of the most important components of endurance training.

Lactate threshold training – a look at the importance of lactate threshold training. And how to improve your lactate threshold through specific training.

High Intensity Interval Training – a look at the science behind HIIT Interval training. And the best approaches for improving endurance exercise performance.

Strength Training for Endurance – the importance of strength training for endurance. A look at the current recommendations for improving endurance exercise through strength training.

Inspiratory Muscle Training – the science behind using inspiratory muscle trainers to improve respiratory strength, efficiency and exercise performance.

Sports Nutrition Articles

Endurance Nutrition Basics – a look at the basics of sports nutrition.

Carbo-loading – What is carbo-loading? A look at how carbo-loading can be important for endurance athletes.

Carbohydrates during exercise – the importance of consuming carbohydrates during exercise.

Fat intake for Endurance – a look at fat consumption and endurance.

Interval training articles – blog posts looking at the science of interval training.

Strength training articles – our strength training blog articles.

Nutrition articles – articles looking at sports nutrition.


Acevado, E.O. and Goldfarb, A.H. (1989). Increased training intensity effects on plasma lactate, ventilatory thresholds, and endurance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 21, 563-568.

Costill, D.L. (1986). Inside Running: Basics of Sports Physiology. Benchmark Press: Indinapolis, USA.

Coyle, E.F., Feltner, M.E., Kautz, S., Hamilton, M.T., Montain, S.J., Baylor, A.M., Abraham, L.D. and Petrek, G.W. (1991). Physiological and biochemical factors associated with elite endurance cycling performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 23, 93-107.

Fallowfield, J.L. and Wilkinson, J.L. (1999). Improving sports performance in Middle and Long-Distance Running. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons, LTD.

Jones, A.M. (1998). A five year physiological case study of an Olympic runner. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 32, 39-43.

Londeree, B.R. (1997). Effect of training on lactate/ventilatory thresholds: a meta analysis. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 29, 837-843.

Martin, D.E. and Coe, P.N. (1997). Better Training for Distance Runners (2nd edition). Human Kinetics: Champaign, IL, USA.

Neumann, G., Pfutzner, A. and Berbalk, A. (2000). Successful Endurance Training. Oxford: Meyer and Meyer Sport (UK), LTD.

Noakes, T.D. (1991). Lore of Running. Human Kinetics: Champaign, IL, USA.

Pate, R.R. and Branch, J.D. (1992). Training for endurance sport. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 24, S340-343.

Scroll to Top